The Nb-doped WO 3 films were deposited by e-beam co-evaporation method using ceramic WO 3 targets and metal Nb slugs. The films were analyzed by glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIAXRD), UV/visible spectrophotometer, electrochemical cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The as-prepared film is brown and amorphous in structure. The film has low transmission in optical visible region. The XPS results indicate that the as-deposited film is non-stoichiometric. By applying a negative potential, the as-deposited film does not show obvious electrochromic effect. However, the electrochromic properties of Nb-doped WO 3 films are improved by post annealing treatment at 350, 400, and 450 °C in oxygen atmosphere. The Nb-doped WO 3 films transform into crystalline structure and become transparent after post annealing treatment. The energy band gap, optical modulation, and color efficiency increase with annealing temperature.
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