Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and contribute to high financial burden worldwide. Administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy is the key to achieving good therapeutic outcomes. The authors review the current status of global or regional epidemiology, especially on the antimicrobial resistance and several potential agents against complicated UTIs by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Areas covered: The authors summarized the susceptibility status on several major surveillance programs on uropathogens, focusing on Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Besides, the current perspectives of several potential antimicrobials against MDR uropathogens available for UTIs were also reviewed. Expert opinion: High resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially to extended-spectrum β-lactams, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones among uropathogens emerges as a critical problem in many countries. Appropriate antimicrobial stewardship and continuous surveillance are necessary to monitor the trends of susceptibility for main pathogens. For these MDR uropathogens, polymyxin, fosfomycin, tigecycline, nitrofurantoin, linezolid, and daptomycin might be potential treatments for patients with uncomplicated and complicated UTIs in some countries, although they might not be approved by their regulation. However, more clinical evidence and more extensive meta-analyses are needed to evaluate and confirm the effectiveness of their usage in countries with a high prevalence of multidrug resistance.
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