Endometriosis is considered to be a polygenic disease with a complex, multifactorial aetiology that affects about 10% of women in the reproductive age. Women with endometriosis have symptoms that include chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia, significantly reducing their quality of life. Endometriosis is also the primary cause of infertility in women, with the prevalence rate ranging from 20% to 50%. The high prevalence and severe outcomes of this disease have made it a major public health concern in modern society. Currently, the mechanism(s) responsible for the initiation and promotion of this disease remains obscure. In this review, we focus on the expression, regulation and action of prostaglandins in the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development and/or maintenance of endometriosis.
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