Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) by micro-organisms is desired for efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol fuels. Potential candidates have been discovered, including cellulolytic bacteria and filamentous fungi. Genetic and metabolic manipulation of these organisms further promotes their fermentation capacities and the ethanol tolerance. In addition, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeasts were genetically modified to express recombinant cellulases in media or display them on the cell surface for CBP of cellulose. To compensate the insufficient capacity of a single strain, various microbial consortia have also been developed. In this article, we reviewed the recent advances in CBP microbes and focused on the efforts in strain improvement employing genetic engineering.
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