Context-aware ubiquitous learning (CAUL) technology provides language learners with interactive learning environments and has been found to increase learning effectiveness and self-efficacy due to student interaction, discussion and evaluation of the entire learning process. This study used a mobile-based ubiquitous learning system combined with a collaborative learning approach to develop Fitness-specific English listening and reading, and fitness knowledge. The researchers recruited two groups of participants, an individual learning group (N = 31) and a collaborative learning group (N = 30), and evaluated their learning performance via pre-and post-tests. In addition, a questionnaire explored the perceived usefulness, usability, follow-up intention of using the system and self-efficacy regarding fitness-specific English. The results show that both groups improved fitness-specific English in terms of listening and reading comprehension. Moreover, collaborative learning was found to facilitate fitness-specific knowledge, and those in the collaborative learning group improved their self-efficacy more than those in the individual learning group.
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