Global greenhouse gas emissions have driven up carbon dioxide levels beyond 400 parts per million, thereby increasing the rate of global warming. This paper conducted a thorough assessment of available operating strategies to identify the approach to speed reduction that is best able to minimize costs and reduce the impact of shipping on the environment. Our results indicate that optimum speed reduction is a dynamic process depending largely on charter rates and fuel prices. The significant cost advantages afforded by this approach could improve the competitiveness of ship operators.
|頁（從 - 到）||110-115|
|期刊||Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment|
|出版狀態||Published - 2014 八月|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Environmental Science(all)