The aim of this study was to compare the clinical regenerative capacity of collagen membrane with and without demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA) in treating periodontal intrabony defects. Ten systemically healthy patients with similar bilateral periodontal defects were scheduled for surgery. Each patient had at least > or = 6 mm clinical probing depth and loss of attachment at selected sites. Baseline measurements included gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing depth (PD), and mobility. At the time of surgery, the defects were randomly assigned to either test (collagen membrane plus DFDBA) or control group (collagen membrane only). Stent to base of the defects, stent to crest bone, crest of bone to base of the defect, and width of the defects were recorded at the time of surgery and reentry. Eight patients returned after 6 months for reentry surgery. Statistical analysis with a paired t test was used to evaluate the treatment effect and comparison between test and control groups. In addition, a McNemar test was used to analyze the significance of GI, PI, and mobility at different times. The result of this study indicated that both the collagen plus DFDBA and the collagen alone treatment groups had a significant decrease of PD (3.4 +/- 0.4 and 3.2 +/- 0.4 mm), gain of CAL (2.3 +/- 0.5 and 2.0 +/- 0.4 mm), and defect fill (1.7 +/- 0.3 and 1.9 +/- 0.9 mm) (P < 0.05) when compared to the presurgery status. However, there was no significant difference in PD, AL, GR, defect fill, crestal bone resorption, GI, PI, or mobility between the test group and control group. No adverse tissue reaction, infection, or delayed wound healing was noted throughout the treatment in either group. This study suggests that the collagen membrane is well tolerated by the human tissues. Both treatments, either collagen membrane plus DFDBA or collagen membrane alone, promoted significant resolution of periodontal intrabony defects. The addition of a bone graft (DFDBA) with a collagen membrane appears to add no extra benefit to the collagen membrane treatment.
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