A model is developed to define the evaporation rates of solutes from water. The rate equation, similar in form to the Knudsen equation, takes into consideration the effect of air and subwater turbulences on the evaporation loss. At given system conditions, the factor accounting for the air turbulence appears to be essentially constant and independent of temperature (3.5-25°C) for various organic chemicals and water. These characteristics allow one to study the rate of evaporation from water and the relative enhancement by subwater mixing for different solutes. This report shows that the volatilization loss of pure substances and solutes with low Henry's law constants is enhanced by air turbulence, not by subwater mixing. However, the loss of volatile solutes (high Henry's law constants) may be promoted both by air turbulence and by subwater mixing, in which the extent of enhancement by liquid mixing is determined primarily by the Henry's law constant. The present model provides a theoretical basis to explain these effects and others, which appear to be important for assessment of pollutant evaporative transport in the environment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- 環境科學 (全部)