Exposure sources and their relative contributions to urinary phthalate metabolites among children in Taiwan

Chu Chih Chen, Yin Han Wang, Shu Li Wang, Po Chin Huang, Shu Chun Chuang, Mei Huei Chen, Bai Hsiun Chen, Chien Wen Sun, Hsiao Chun Fu, Ching Chang Lee, Ming Tsang Wu, Mei Lien Chen, Chao A. Hsiung

研究成果: Article同行評審

22 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Phthalate exposure is omnipresent and known to have developmental and reproductive effects in children. The aim of this study was to determine the phthalate exposure sources and their relative contributions among children in Taiwan. During the first wave of the Risk Assessment of Phthalate Incident in Taiwan (RAPIT), in 2012, we measured 8 urinary phthalate metabolites in 226 children aged 1–11 years old and in 181 children from the same cohort for the wave 2 study in 2014. A two-stage statistical analysis approach was adopted. First, a stepwise regression model was used to screen 80 questions that explored the exposure frequency and lifestyle for potential associations. Second, the remaining questions with positive regression coefficients were grouped into the following 6 exposure categories: plastic container/packaging, food, indoor environment, personal care products, toys, and eating out. A mixed model was then applied to assess the relative contributions of these categories for each metabolite. The use of plastic container or food packaging were dominant exposure sources for mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). The indoor environment was a major exposure source of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). The consumption of seafood showed a significant correlation with MEHP. The children's modified dietary behavior and improved living environment in the second study wave were associated with lower phthalate metabolite levels, showing that phthalate exposures can be effectively reduced.

頁(從 - 到)869-879
期刊International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
出版狀態Published - 2017 7月

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • 公共衛生、環境和職業健康


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