What is known on the subject?: Internalized stigma in people diagnosed with mental illness has several negative outcomes; however, it remains unclear in an Indonesian context. The human rights of people diagnosed with mental illness in Indonesia have been routinely violated because of the existing stigma against mental illness and deficiencies in the country's mental healthcare services. What the paper adds to existing knowledge?: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the level of internalized stigma and related factors among Indonesians diagnosed with schizophrenia. Almost one-third of the subjects had moderate-to-severe levels of internalized stigma, among which discrimination was the strongest type. Specifically, younger and unemployed people with more psychotic symptoms had higher levels of internalized stigma. What are the implications for practice?: The provision of adequate pharmacological and psychosocial treatments to help people manage their psychotic symptoms is extremely important to ameliorate stigma. Vocational rehabilitation and employment support for unemployed people may potentially reduce their internalized stigma and promote recovery. Abstract: Introduction The human rights of people diagnosed with mental illness in Indonesia have been routinely violated because of societal stigma associated with mental illness and deficiencies in the country's mental healthcare services. Knowledge about internalized stigma among people diagnosed with schizophrenia in lower middle-income Muslim countries is also scarce. Aim To identify the level of internalized stigma and related factors among people diagnosed with schizophrenia in Indonesia. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a purposive sample of 300 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from an urban Indonesian psychiatric hospital. Results Almost one-third of the subjects had moderate-to-severe levels of internalized stigma, among which discrimination was the strongest type. Younger age, unemployment status and having psychotic symptoms significantly increased the risk of internalized stigma when analysed in a multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Discussion The present study firstly identified the high levels of internalized stigma among Indonesian individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Implications for practice Mental health nurses are suggested to provide early anti-stigma illness management and family psychoeducation interventions to people diagnosed with schizophrenia and their family caregivers, helping them to develop an optimistic understanding about the concept of schizophrenia and mitigating the negative consequences of public and internalized stigma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Phychiatric Mental Health