Fagopyrum tataricum (buckwheat) is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. This study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and anti-insulin resistance effects of 75 ethanol extracts of buckwheat (EEB) in FL83B hepatocytes by high-glucose (33mM) induction and in C57BL/6 mice by fructose-rich diet (FRD; 60) induction. The active compounds of EEB (100g/mL; 50mg/kgbw), quercetin (6g/mL; 3mg/kgbw), and rutin (23g/mL; 11.5mg/kgbw) were also employed to treat FL83B hepatocytes and animal. Results indicated that EEB, rutin, and quercetin + rutin significantly improved 2-NBDG uptake via promoting Akt phosphorylation and preventing PPAR degradation caused by high-glucose induction for 48h in FL83B hepatocytes. We also found that EEB could elevate hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities to attenuate insulin resistance as well as its antioxidation caused by rutin and quercetin. Finally, EEB also inhibited increases in blood glucose and insulin levels of C57BL/6 mice induced by FRD.
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