Our previous studies demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) protects cortical and dopaminergic neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced oxidative insult by upregulation of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, the mechanisms responsible for FGF9-induced γ-GCS and HO-1 upregulation remain uncharacterized. In the present study, we demonstrate the signaling pathways by which FGF9 upregulates HO-1 and γ-GCS expression. We found that FGF9-induced HO-1 and γ-GCS expression was prevented by PD173014, an inhibitor of the FGF receptor (FGFR). FGF9 treatment induced the phosphorylation of FGFR downstream signals of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and AKT in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The inhibition of MEK/ERK1/2 or PI3K/AKT activity by U0126 or wortmannin, but not the inhibition of phospholipase Cγ by U73122, prevented FGF9-induced γ-GCS and HO-1 upregulation, changes in cellular redox status, and neuroprotection against MPP+ toxicity in primary cortical and dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, FGF9 treatment enhanced the promoter activity of the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), and this phenomenon was blocked by PD173014 or U0126 or wortmannin. Knockdown of CREB and Nrf2 by shRNA blocked FGF9-induced γ-GCS and HO-1 upregulation, but not ERK and AKT phosphorylation. An in vivo study consistently showed that FGF9 overexpression using a lentivirus delivery system induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HO-1 upregulation and protected dopaminergic neurons against MPP+ toxicity in rat substantia nigra. These results indicate that FGF9-induced HO-1 and γ-GCS upregulation is mediated by binding to FGFR and activation of two parallel downstream signaling pathways, ERK and AKT, which reconverge to induce CREB and Nrf2 transcriptional activity.
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|Free Radical Biology and Medicine
|Published - 2015 12月 1
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