Recent work has revealed that increasing numbers of drivers now receive driving instructions using a portable navigation system. A 222 (positiondisplay decrease modevoice) factorial experiment was executed to compare driving performance when using a portable navigation system (PNS). Thirty-two subjects were paid to participate in this field study, and a smart phone was adopted as the portable navigation device. The results indicated that drivers using the PNS under the conditions up position and with voice instruction performed better in terms of trip duration, mean speed, and the standard deviation of speed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ocean Engineering