Mechanisms of formamidine synergism of pyrethroid insecticides were investigated in the house fly, Musca domestica L. A bioassay method was developed to show formamidine synergism of cypermethrin in adult house flies. Flies were exposed to a residue of cypermethrin with and without formamidine for 30 min and then transferred to a clean container. Mortality was recorded 24 h later. Synergism of cypermethrin occurred in flies exposed simultaneously to cypermethrin plus formamidines and in flies exposed to cypermethrin either before or after exposure to a formamidine. Synergism ranged up to 11.8-fold and was greater in susceptible than in resistant house flies. A monomeric derivative of amitraz (BTS 27271) was the most active synergist, chlordimeform was intermediate, and amitraz was least active. Synergism of cypermethrin also occurred in flies injected with octopamine and then exposed to cypermethrin, suggesting that formamidines may be acting as octopamine agonists. Measurements of the effects of formamidines on uptake of cypermethrin showed that BTS 27271 increased uptake less than chlordimeform and that amitraz had almost no effect. Both target site and behavioral effects are discussed as possible mechanisms of formamidine synergism of cypermethrin and other pyrethroids.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science