Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for stem cell regulation and tumorigenesis, but its molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we report that FoxM1 is a downstream component of Wnt signaling and is critical for β-catenin transcriptional function in tumor cells. Wnt3a increases the level and nuclear translocation of FoxM1, which binds directly to β-catenin and enhances β-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity. Genetic deletion of FoxM1 in immortalized neural stem cells abolishes β-catenin nuclear localization. FoxM1 mutations that disrupt the FoxM1-β-catenin interaction or FoxM1 nuclear import prevent β-catenin nuclear accumulation in tumor cells. FoxM1-β-catenin interaction controls Wnt target gene expression, is required for glioma formation, and represents a mechanism for canonical Wnt signaling during tumorigenesis.
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