We have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transduction are involved in the regulation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) β gene expression within macrophages. Because the 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) plays an important role in the LPS mediation of macrophage activation, using Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin A (GA), we analyzed the mechanism of Hsp90 upon LPS-transduced signaling in the regulation of IL-1 expression and determined the function of Hsp90 regarding the viability of human primary macrophages and murine macrophages cell line. In essence, GA decreased LPS-induced Hsp90/pp60Src heterocomplex formation. In addition, Hsp90 is important for IL-1 protein translation, plays a minor role in IL-1 mRNA transcription, and is involved in nuclear factor-κB activation and the phosphorylation and activation of p38, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase; however, Hsp90 plays a more important role in LPS-stimulated p38 activation. In analyzing the function of Hsp90 regarding the cytotoxicity/viability of macrophages, we found that the combination of LPS and GA increases apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased caspase-3 activity and the proportion of nuclear/chromatin condensation. In contrast, N-acetyl-cysteine dramatically blocked GA/LPS-induced ROS production, simultaneously decreasing caspase-3 activity and the presence of apoptotic nuclei. We concluded that Hsp90 plays an indispensable role in the process of LPS-induced IL-1 secretion. Furthermore, we established the mechanism of GA interference with Hsp90 function for LPS-stimulated macrophages, resulting in increased ROS production and caspase-3 activation, and consequently leading to synergistic enhancement of macrophage apoptosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes