Background: Both ghrelin and leptin are important appetite hormones secreted from the stomach. We examined whether demographic background, Helicobacter pylori infection, or its related gastritis severity could be associated with circulating ghrelin and leptin levels. Methods: This study prospectively enrolled 341 dyspeptic patients (196 females, 145 males), who had received endoscopy to provide the gastric specimens over both antrum and corpus for histology reviewed by the updated Sydney's system. The fasting blood sample of each patient was obtained for total ghrelin and leptin analysis. Results: Without H. pylori infection, there were similar ghrelin levels between female and male patients. In the H. pylori-infected patients, the males had lower plasma ghrelin levels than females (1053 vs. 1419 pg/mL, p <.001). Only in males, not in females, the H. pylori infection and its related acute and chronic inflammation scores were significantly associated with a lower ghrelin level (p ≤.04). The multivariate regression disclosed that only the chronic inflammation score independently related to a lower ghrelin level. Only in males, the ghrelin levels ranked in a downward trend for the gastritis feature as with limited-gastritis, with antrum-predominant gastritis, and with corpus-gastritis (1236, 1101, and 977 pg/mL). Leptin level was not related to H. pylori-related gastritis, but positively related to body mass index. Conclusion: There should be a gender difference to circulating total ghrelin levels, but not leptin levels, in response to H. pylori infection and its related chronic gastritis.
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