Background: Several studies have hypothesized that the pattern of health care utilization among maltreated children differ from others without the experience. However, the conclusions have not been consistent. Objective: The study aims to examine whether the pattern of health care utilization among children 0–5 years old with maltreatment different from their counterparts without maltreatment in Taiwan. Subjects and Setting: All children born in 2007 in Taiwan. Method: This is a population-based and case-controlled study. Cases are children under five years of ago with maltreatment-related diagnosis in the claims data of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan during the 2007–2013 period. For each case, there were 10 birth date-matched controls. Exposure variables include the number of injury or non-injury-related outpatients, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalization. Multivariate models were employed, with adjustment for sex, urbanization level, and comorbidities of children. Results: Of children born in 2007, 382 had maltreatment-related diagnosis during the age of 0–5. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for having two or more ED visits with or without injury-related diagnosis is 3.52 (95% CI 1.75–7.07) and 2.0-0 (95% CI 1.47–2.72), respectively. Children with maltreatment also had significantly higher number of hospitalization without injury-related diagnosis and aOR for those having two more hospitalizations stands at 2.47 (95% CI 1.59–3.83). Conclusions: Children with maltreatment when 0–5 years old had higher number of ED visits with injury-related diagnosis, as well as hospitalization without injury-related diagnosis. Recognition of the health care utilization is conducive to early identification of children with risk for maltreatment.
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