In this work, we demonstrate a novel high-power vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array with highly single-mode (SM) and single-polarized output performance without significantly increasing the intra-cavity loss and threshold current (Ith). By combining a low-loss zinc-diffusion aperture with an electroplated copper substrate, we can obtain a highly SM output (side mode suppression ratio >50 dB) with a very narrow divergence angle (1/e2: ∼10◦) under high output power (3.1 W; 1% duty cycle) and sustain a single polarization state, with a polarization suppression ratio of around 9 dB, under the full range of bias currents. Compared to the reference device without the copper substrate, the demonstrated array can not only switch the output optical spectra from quasi-SM to highly SM but also maintain a close threshold current value (Ith: 0.8 versus 0.7 mA per unit device) and slope efficiency. The enhancement in fundamental mode selectivity of our VCSEL structure can be attributed to the single-polarized lasing mode induced by tensile strain, which is caused by the electroplated copper substrate, as verified by the double-crystal x-ray measurement results.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics