Background: The pathogens in acute rhinosinusitis are similar worldwide. An increase in antibiotic resistance has been shown in a large number of studies in recent years. The prevalence of resistance varies greatly in different countries. This study was performed to determine the endemic prevalence of antibiotic resistance in pathogens of acute rhinosinusitis in Taiwan. Methods: Middle meatus discharge was taken for aerobic culture in 133 outpatients with the diagnosis of acute rhinosinusitis. Results: One hundred two isolates of pathogens were found, including three major bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae (37.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (28.4%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.8%). Polymicrobial infections and positive cultures occurred more frequently in pediatric patients, as did recovery of M. catarrhalis infection. An extremely high percentage of resistance to first-line antibiotics was noted, viz., penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSSP) (72.4%), ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae (60.5%), and M. catarrhalis (58.3%). Conclusion: The high prevalence of drug resistance is a great threat to public health. Antibiotic use should be more prudent, especially in pediatric patients, who were found to be more susceptible to bacterial rhinosinusitis and multiple pathogenic infection.
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