An experimental and numerical investigation into the use of high-resolution injection techniques to separate DNA fragments within electrophoresis microchips is presented. The principal material transport mechanisms of electrokinetic migration, fluid flow, and diffusion are considered, and several variable-volume injection methods are discussed. A detailed analysis is provided of a double-L injection technique, which employs appropriate electrokinetic manipulations to reduce sample leakage within the microchip. The leakage effect in electroosmotic flow (EOF) is investigated using a sample composed of rhodamine B and Cy3 dye. Meanwhile, the effects of sample leakage in capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation are studied by considering the separation of 100-base pairs (bp) DNA ladders and Haelll-digested ΦX-174 DNA samples. The present experimental and simulation results indicate that the unique injection system employed in the current microfluidic chip has the ability to replicate the functions of both the conventional cross-channel and the shift-channel injection systems. Furthermore, applying the double-L injection method to these two injection systems is shown to reduce sample leakage significantly. The proposed microfluidic chip and double-L injection technique developed in this study have an exciting potential for use in high-resolution, high-throughput biochemical analysis applications and in many other applications throughout the micrototal analysis systems field.
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