This systematic review with a meta-regression was conducted to determine the risk of depression after mastectomy compared to breast reconstruction among women with breast cancer 1 year after surgery. A literature search was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines using 4 databases: Medline (Ovid), Embase, Cinahl, and the Cochrane Library for the period January 2000 to March 2019. Studies that measured the status of depression within 1 year and immediately after surgery were included. Outcomes related to depression were analyzed by using a pool of event rates and a risk ratio of 95% confidence interval (CI), P value, and a fitting model based on the results of a heterogeneity test of mastectomy and BR. The statistical analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-analysis 3.0 software. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. There were 865 cases of mastectomy only, with a 22.2% risk of depression (95% CI, 12.4-36.2). In 869 women who underwent BR, the risk of depression was 15.7% (95% CI, 8.8-26.2). The depression risk ratio for mastectomy compared to BR was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.11-1.65). Patients with delayed reconstruction exhibited lower levels of depression (risk ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.57-1.01). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale showed high sensitivity, and the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) with a cutoff of > 7 could measure even low to moderate depressive symptoms. One in 4 women with breast cancer had symptoms of depression after mastectomy; both surgeries were associated with depression in women 1 year after surgery. Our results will permit the development of proactive treatment plans before and after surgery to mitigate risk and prevent depression through the use of sensitive depression scales like BDI.
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