Hydrogen permeation across membranes is measured using a dynamic pressure difference method. In the method, a transient system for continuously monitoring hydrogen flux of a membrane is conducted. Three different membranes, consisting of two pure palladium (Pd) membranes with different thicknesses and one palladium-copper (Pd-Cu) membrane supported by porous stainless steel (PSS) tubes, are taken into account. Three different operating temperatures of 320, 350 and 380 °C as well as two different initial pressure differences of 5 and 10 atm are considered to evaluate the effects of the operating parameters upon the hydrogen permeation. The results suggest that a threshold of pressure difference is always exhibited at the end of the permeation process, regardless of which membrane is tested. The hydrogen permeation rate can be predicted well for the pressure exponent in the range of 0.1-1.0; however, the optimal pressure exponent is located between 0.5 and 0.8. The theoretical analysis indicates that the characteristic time of hydrogen permeation in the present system ranges from 245 to 460 s and the entire permeation period is longer than the characteristic time by an order of magnitude. In regard to the effect of membrane temperature on the permeation, the activation energies of the three membranes range from 11 to 18 kJ mol-1.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Fuel Technology
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology