Therapeutic agents for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in the chronic phase include hydroxyurea, interferon alpha, allogeneic stem cell transplantation and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib (STI 571, Gleevec). For elderly patients, oral hydroxyurea is suitable for the relief of symptoms caused by hyperleukocytosis, and splenic irradiation would be considered if abdominal discomfort or fullness induced by splenomegaly were present. Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is seldom seen in the treatment for CML, and TLS caused by hydroxyurea or splenic irradiation is rarely observed. Herein, we report an elderly CML patient who received treatment with hydroxyurea, allopurinol, hydration and splenic irradiation. After 3 days, acute TLS developed. Aggressive supportive treatment, including haemodialysis, stabilized the condition.
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