The Ballast Water Management Convention (BWMC) entered into force in September 2017. Most countries have enacted relevant national laws and regulations to mitigate the hazards of ballast water-mediated introductions of non-indigenous aquatic species (NIS). Taiwan's critical location as an important transportation hub in the Western Pacific Ocean makes it a hot spot for such invasions. For the past few years, policy dialogue between government and the shipping sector has been actively continuously conducted in order to form a consensus for devising strategies for the management of ballast water. In this study, information on policy debates among multiple stakeholders for three consecutive years and vessel traffic information were utilized to explore policy options for ballast water management. This article provides several recommendations for the implementation of the Convention in the early stages, including a three-tiered port state control (PSC) system, designation of an alternative ballast water exchange zone, and possibility of exemption.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aquatic Science
- Environmental Science(all)
- Economics and Econometrics
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law