The integrity and transparency of a haptic feedback in a bilateral control is crucial for precise and accurate operators’ sensation during human–machine interactions. Conventional master and slave bilateral control systems are often subject to unknown or unwanted disturbances and dynamics in the actuators and powertrain linkages that hamper the haptic feedback integrity and transparency. Force sensor torque sensing and feedback control are required to mitigate these effects. In contrast to the conventional approach of introducing torque sensing using a mechanical spring, this paper introduces a magnetic coupling as a torque sensor to detect reaction torque between the human input and the master actuator. Disturbance observer-based torque feedback control is designed to suppress the disturbances and tailor the haptic transparency dynamics. Experimental results on a virtual reality interaction system, which involves the steering wheel bilateral control in a cyber-physical driving simulator system, demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method with improved haptic integrity and transparency.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes