Objectives: We investigated the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinically important Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from 16 major teaching hospitals in Taiwan in 2017. Materials and methods: Escherichia coli (n=686) and Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream isolates (n=673), non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS; n=221) from various sources, Shigella species (n=21) from fecal samples, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n=129) from the genitourinary tract were collected. Antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Alleles encoding K. pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamases (NDMs), Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase, imipenemase, OXA-48-like, and mcr-1-5 genes were detected by molecular methods in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Results: Five (0.7%) E. coli isolates harbored mcr-1 alleles. Twenty-four (3.6%), seven (1.0%), four (0.6%), and one (0.15%) K. pneumoniae isolates contained blaKPC, blaOXA-48-like, mcr-1, and blaNDM, respectively. Three (1.4%) NTS and no Shigella isolates harbored mcr-1 genes. Seventy-one (10.5%) K. pneumoniae isolates displayed non-susceptibility (NS) to carbapenem agent(s). Phenotypically extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae isolates showed significantly higher rates of ertapenem, tigecycline, and ceftolozane–tazobactam (CLZ– TAZ) NS (40.2%, 16.3%, and 71%–80%, respectively) than E. coli isolates exhibiting ESBL phenotypes (5.4%, 0.7%, and 18%–28%, respectively). All phenotypically ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were ceftazidime–avibactam (CAZ–AVB) susceptible. Two (8.3%) KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates showed CAZ–AVB NS. Hospital-acquired K. pneumoniae isolates were significantly less susceptible to ertapenem and CLZ–TAZ than hospital-acquired E. coli isolates. Conclusion: Third-generation cephalosporins remain the optimal choice for treating NTS, Shigella, and gonococcal infections in Taiwan. Hospital-acquired and phenotypically ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae are a heavy resistance burden in Taiwan.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)