Purpose: Growing evidence have suggested an association between nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with unclear mechanism. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) induces atherosclerosis and was found to be the possible link between these two diseases. Our study aimed to examine the serum, urine and kidney expression of oxLDL in relation to large calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone disease. Methods: A total of 67 large CaOx dominant renal stone patients and 31 stone-free controls were enrolled in the prospective case–control study. All participants were without known CVD history. Serum, urine, and kidney biopsy were collected before and during percutaneous nephrolithotomy, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to assess serum and urine oxLDL, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Results: There was no significantly difference in circulating oxLDL, but serum hsCRP was significantly near two-fold higher in nephrolithiasis patients. Serum hsCRP was also correlated with stone maximal length. Urine oxLDL was significantly higher in the nephrolithiasis group and correlated with serum hsCRP and stone maximal length. Increased oxLDL uptake in kidney was found in nephrolithiasis patients, whereas no significantly renal expression of oxLDL was observed in controls. Conclusions: The renal uptake of oxLDL with increased oxLDL excretion from large CaOx renal stone formers, independent of increased circulating oxLDL, is a novel pathological finding in kidney stone disease and brings attention to the possible involvement of renal steatosis in the process of urolithiasis formation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes