Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The objective of our study was to examine the inter-relationship among infection sites, systemic antibiotic use and risk of CRC among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. From a diabetic cohort from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database, we identified 3,593 incident colon cancer cases, 1,979 rectal cancer cases and 22,288 controls and conducted a nested case-control study to examine the association between antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Logistic regression models were applied to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) between infection sites, antibiotic use and CRC incidence. Patients with intra-abdominal infection were significantly associated with increased risk for colon cancer (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.35) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.26-2.00). Any antianaerobic antibiotic use was associated with a higher risk of colon cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.12-2.52) and rectal cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.50-1.90) but without an obvious dose-response relationship for cumulative use. Antianaerobic antibiotics also increased the risks for those with nonintra-abdominal infection. No association was found between antiaerobic agent use and the CRC risk. The results suggest intra-abdominal infections and antianaerobic antibiotic use may be a marker for precancerous lesions or early CRC, although the possibility of antianaerobic antibiotics playing an additional role cannot be excluded. Further research examining the relationship between intra-abdominal infection, antianaerobic antibiotics use and possible change of microbiota leading to colorectal carcinogenesis is warranted.
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