Rationale: Stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by metabolic byproducts is known to result in inflammatory responses and metabolic diseases. However, how the host controls aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unclear. PPARγ, a known regulator of energy metabolism, plays an anti-inflammatory role through the inhibition of NF-κB activation and additionally attenuates NLRP3-dependent IL-1β and IL-18 production. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPARγ serves as an endogenous modulator that attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages with exposure to a PPARγ agonist at different stages and the NLRP3 inflammasome-reconstituted system in HEK293T cells were used to investigate the additional anti-inflammatory effect of PPARγ on NLRP3 inflammasome regulation. Circulating mononuclear cells of obese patients with weight-loss surgery were used to identify the in vivo correlation between PPARγ and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Results: Exposure to the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone, during the second signal of NLRP3 inflammasome activation attenuated caspase-1 and IL-1β maturation. Moreover, PPARγ interfered with NLRP3 inflammasome formation by decreasing NLRP3-ASC and NLRP3-NLRP3 interactions as well as NLRP3-dependent ASC oligomerization, which is mediated through interaction between the PPARγ DNA-binding domain and the nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains of NLRP3. Furthermore, PPARγ was required to limit metabolic damage-associated molecular pattern-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mouse macrophages. Finally, the mature caspase-1/PPARγ ratio was reduced in circulating mononuclear cells of obese patients after weight-loss surgery, which we define as an “NLRP3 accelerating index”. Conclusions: These results revealed an additional anti-inflammatory role for PPARγ in suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation through interaction with NLRP3. Thus, our study highlights that PPARγ agonism may be a therapeutic option for targeting NLRP3-related metabolic diseases.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)