Caridina gracilipes, an atyid shrimp of Taiwan, inhabits the fresh and brackish waters. Its life history can be classified into amphidromous and landlocked types. Recent human's transportation has caused concerns of genetic contamination between these long evolved lineages and ecological instabilities. Molecular markers with high sensitivities are required for detecting the possible introgression due to human disturbance. In the study, we described the development of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in C. gracilipes for genetic and ecological studies. These new markers were tested in 20 individuals of three populations. The number of alleles ranged from 6 to 17. Expected (H E) and observed (H O) heterozygosities ranged from 0.653 to 0.954, averaged at 0.865, and from 0.000 to 0.4, averaged at 0.146, respectively. All loci are significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations due to the heterozygote deficiency. Significant genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on F ST values, which were estimated from 0.82 to 0.88.
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