Four full-scaled partially confined and unconfined masonry panels were tested with monotonic lateral loads. To study the effects of vertical force and boundary columns, two specimens with no boundary columns were subjected to different vertical forces, while two wing-wall specimens had the column placed eccentrically and in the middle, respectively. The specimens with no boundary columns exhibited ductile rocking behavior, where the lateral strength increased with increasing vertical compression. The wing-wall specimens with columns behaved as strut-and-tie systems. The column-panel interaction resulted in greater strength, lower deformation capacity and differences in failure modes. A comparison with analytical models showed that rocking strength can be accurately estimated using vertical force and the panel aspect ratio for panels with no boundary columns. The estimation for lateral strength on the basis of a panel section area indicated scattered error for wing-wall specimens.
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