Background and Aim: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) has overexpressions of COX-2. Short-term 8-week celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, exerts a preliminary hint to improve regression in part for persistent IM after Helicobacter pylori eradication. This study further validated whether or not a prolonged duration of celecoxib of up to 1 year can be safe and effective. Methods: One hundred and forty patients, with persistent IM after H. pylori eradication for 1 year, were included with half of them receiving celecoxib 200 mg/day for 12 months and the other half serving as controls. Each patient received serial checkups of blood creatinine levels every 4 months. After the 1-year follow-up, panendoscopy was repeated to assess the IM regression. The serial gastric specimens, taken before and after celecoxib therapy, were immunochemically stained for COX-2. Results: The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses to the rates of IM regression were higher in the celecoxib group than in the controls (ITT: 44.3% [31/70] vs 14.3% [10/70], p < .001; and PP: 51.7% [31/60] vs 16.1% [10/62], p < .001). All enrolled patients had no renal impairment during follow-up. Even in the patients without IM regression, the mean IM scores and COX-2 expressions were significantly more decreased in the celecoxib group than in the controls (p < .005). Conclusion: One year 200-mg celecoxib daily be safely administered to improve the regression or prevent the progression of persistent IM after H. pylori eradication.
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