Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and long-term outcomes of treatment with topical 2% ganciclovir solution in immunocompetent patients with aqueous humor polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior uveitis and corneal endotheliitis. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the findings for immunocompetent patients diagnosed with CMV uveitis or endotheliitis based on clinical manifestations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination results and treated with topical 2% ganciclovir solution at National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Clinical outcome measurements included evaluations of the response rate, relapses, resolution of anterior chamber inflammation, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Results: The study included 38 eyes of 32 patients. Long-term administration of topical 2% ganciclovir significantly decreased keratic precipitates (p = 0.001), anterior chamber cells (p = 0.001), and reduced intraocular pressure (p < 0.001). Only one eye was unresponsive to topical ganciclovir treatment, and the recurrence decreased to 0.13 relapses per year. The presence of keratic precipitates and higher intraocular pressure at the initial presentation were significantly associated with recurrence (p = 0.036 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusions:: Long-term use of topical 2% ganciclovir solution is effective, safe, and applicable when commercialized ganciclovir gel is not available.
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