Background: To explore the feasibility and long-term outcomes of renal preservation in a retrospective cohort of patients with ureteral urothelial carcinoma undergoing total ureterectomy with ileal-ureteral substitution. Methods: A retrospective review of the data from patients treated with total ureterectomy with ileal-ureteral substitution from 1988 to 2016 was performed. The pre-operative oncological status, long-term oncological outcome, long-term renal functional outcome, early and late complications were analyzed. Results: A total of eight patients with a median age of 70 years were included. The median follow-up time was 109 months. Six patients had multi-focal tumor involvement over the target ureter, and six patients had bilateral upper tract involvement. Only one patient encountered the upper-tract recurrence. The 2 and 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 87.5 and 75.0%, respectively. The renal function was well-preserved in most patients, with only one patient needed life-long postoperative hemodialysis. Five patients experienced early complications and four patients experienced late complications. No perioperative mortality happened. Conclusions: A total ureterectomy with an ileal-ureteral substitution is feasible for treating ureteral urothelial carcinoma when a renal-sparing procedure is indicated. It provides good long-term oncological outcomes over the upper tract, and it also preserves the renal function.
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