Biochar, a carbon-rich and por ous material derived from waste biomass resources, has demonstrated tremendous potential in wastewater treatment. Torrefaction technology offers a favorable low-temperature biochar production method, and torrefied biochar can be used not only as a solid biofuel but also as a pollutant adsorbent. This review compares torrefaction technology with other thermochemical processes and discusses recent advancements in torrefaction techniques. Additionally, the applications of torrefied biochar in wastewater treatment (dyes, oil spills, heavy metals, and emerging pollutants) are comprehensively explored. Many studies have shown that high productivity, high survival of oxygen-containing functional groups, low temperature, and low energy consumption of dried biochar production make it attractive as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment. Moreover, used biochar's treatment, reuse, and safe disposal are introduced, providing valuable insights and contributions to developing sustainable environmental remediation strategies by biochar.
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