Aims/hypothesis: The effect of pioglitazone was compared with that of other second-line glucose-lowering drugs on the risk of dementia among individuals with type 2 diabetes receiving metformin-based dual therapy. Methods: A total of 204,323 individuals with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years who were stable metformin users and dementia-free before the initiation of second-line glucose-lowering medication were identified in the period 2000–2011 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database and followed to the end of 2013. Primary analyses included 51,415 individuals aged ≥65 years without dementia events in the first year of second-line glucose-lowering treatment. Study subjects were classified into mutually exclusive groups according to various second-line glucose-lowering drugs to metformin. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to assess the time-to-event between propensity score-matched glucose-lowering treatment groups. Results: Individuals aged ≥65 years on metformin + pioglitazone had a significantly lower risk of dementia compared with those on metformin + sulfonylurea (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.34, 0.93), and a lower, but insignificant, risk of dementia compared with those on other metformin-based dual regimens (i.e. metformin + acarbose, metformin + meglitinide, metformin + insulin or metformin + dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors). Among individuals aged ≥18 years, there was also a decreased risk of dementia in those taking pioglitazone compared with those taking other second-line glucose-lowering drugs. A lower incidence of dementia was found in users of metformin + pioglitazone compared with users of metformin + rosiglitazone. Conclusions/interpretation: Pioglitazone as a second-line treatment after metformin might provide a protective effect on dementia risk among individuals with type 2 diabetes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism