The materials and energy in an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system involving hydrolysis, dark fermentation, photo fermentation, CO 2 fixation and anaerobic digestion are balanced by integrating the results from multiple experiments, simulations and the literature. The findings are two fold. First, using 1000kg rice straw as a substrate, 19.8kg H 2 and 138.0kg CH 4 are obtained. The net energy balance (NEB) and net energy ratio (NER) are -738.4kWh and 77.8%, respectively, both of which imply an unfavorable energy production system. Opportunities to improve the performance particularly lie in the photo fermentation process. Second, greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated for various options. The results were comparable with the emission inventory of electricity generated from fossil fuels. NEB and NER under a zero-carbon-emission constraint were discussed in detail to clarify completely the implications of the energy and material balances on greenhouse gas emissions.
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