This study aimed at the investigation of the effect of substrate temperature on residual stress in laser powder bed fusion using a physics-based analytical model. In this study, an analytical model is proposed to predict the residual stress through the calculation of preheating affected temperature profile and thermal stress. The effect of preheating is super-positioned with initial temperature in the modeling of temperature profile using a moving heat source approach; the resultant temperature gradient is then employed to predict the thermal stress from a point body load approach. If the thermal stress exceeds the yield strength of the material, then the residual stress under cyclic heating and cooling will be calculated based on the incremental plasticity and kinematic hardening behavior of metal. IN718 is used as a material example to pursue this investigation. To validate the predicted residual stress, experimental measurements are conducted using X-ray diffraction on IN718 samples manufactured via laser powder bed fusion under different process conditions. Results showed that preheating of the substrate could reduce the residual stress in an additively manufactured part due to the reduction in temperature gradient and resultant shrinkage stresses. However, the excessive preheating could have an opposite impact on residual stress accumulation. Moreover, the results confirm that the proposed model is a valuable tool for the prediction of residual stress, eliminating the costly experiments and time-consuming finite element simulations.
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