Background and aims: It is inconclusive whether obesity itself or metabolic abnormalities are linked to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to examine the association between different subtypes of obesity and metabolic abnormalities with CKD in adults. Methods and results: This study enrolled 14,983 eligible subjects stratified into metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight (MHOW), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUOW), and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) according to body mass index and metabolic syndrome status (ATP-III criteria). The metabolic healthy phenotype was defined as the absence of both metabolic syndrome and any known diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension or dyslipidemia. Early and advanced CKD were defined as eGFR<60, proteinuria, or structural abnormalities as detected by renal sonography. The prevalence of CKD was 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 10.6, 9.5, and 10.5% in subjects with MHNW, MHOW, MHO, MUNW, MUOW, and MUO, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the MUNW (OR:2.22, P < 0.001), MUOW (OR:2.22, P < 0.001), and MUO (OR:2.45, P < 0.001) groups were associated with early CKD. For advanced CKD, the OR was 2.56 (P < 0.001), 2.31 (P < 0.001), and 3.49 (P < 0.001) in the MUNW, MUOW, and MUO groups, respectively. The associated risks of early and advanced CKD were not significant in the MHOW and MHO group. MUOW and MUO were associated with higher risk of CKD compared with MHOW and MHO after adjusting other variables. Conclusions: Metabolic abnormalities, but neither overweight nor obesity, were associated with a higher risk of CKD in adults.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine