In the context of climate change and the increase of the energy demand, there is a need for carbon sequestration methods and sustainable fuels. This can be done by cultivation of microalgae, an unicellular microscopic algae that converts carbon dioxide into high-value bioproducts and energy. Moreover, microalgae can be used to assess the health of ecosystems such as lakes. Here we review microalgae for biofuel, for wastewater treatment and as bioindicators. We discuss the impact of processes based on microalgae using life cycle assessment. We present co-cultivation of microalgae with other microbes, and we compare conventional processes with processes integrating auto-flocculation, in situ transesterification and excretion.
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