The world today is facing a crisis of energy and environmental pollution. Conventional or photosynthetic microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an advanced “green” energy technology that utilizes living microorganisms to convert biochemical or light energy into electricity through metabolic reaction and photosynthesis, offering a potential solution for the above-mentioned crisis. Further incorporating microalgae into MFC, microalgae-microbial fuel cell (mMFC) integrates electricity generation, wastewater treatment, CO2 sequestration and biomass production in a single, self-sustainable technology. This review first describes the fundamentals of MFC as well as its applications in treating domestic, municipal, agricultural and industrial wastewaters. Then, mMFC-based configurations and applications with its advantages compared with MFC are explained in particular, together with the parameters governing its performance. Lastly, the opportunities and challenges involved in the development of mMFCs are also explored.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes