Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) have experienced rapid growth over the past decade due to their simple design, low cost, minimal sample requirement, and good sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy. While designed originally for point-of-care medical diagnostics, biological, and food safety applications, μPADs are now used increasingly for environmental monitoring purposes. This review provides a detailed overview of the μPADs developed over the past ten years for the environmental analysis of soil, air, ecology (pesticides) and river water. The review commences by introducing the fabrication techniques and detection methods used in μPAD technology. A detailed description of the main μPAD frameworks proposed in the past decade for environmental monitoring is then provided. The review concludes by examining the challenges facing μPADs for environmental monitoring and identifying probable avenues of future research.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Metals and Alloys
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Materials Chemistry