Chondrosarcoma, a heterogeneous malignant bone tumor, commonly produces cartilage matrix, which generally has no response to conventional therapies. Studies have reported that MLN4924, a NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor, achieves antitumor effects against numerous malignancies. In this study, the suppressive effects of MLN4924 on human chondrosarcoma cell lines were investigated using in vitro and in vivo assays, which involved measuring cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycles, molecule-associated cell cycles, apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Our results demonstrated that MLN4924 significantly suppressed cell viability, exhibited cytotoxicity, and stimulated apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7 in chondrosarcoma cell lines. Furthermore, MLN4924 significantly inhibited cell proliferation by diminishing the phosphorylation of histone H3 to cause G2/M cell cycle arrest. In addition, MLN4924 activated ER stress–related apoptosis by upregulating the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), enhancing the expression of GRP78 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, an inducer of endoplasmic ER stress–related apoptosis) and activating the cleavage of caspase-4. Moreover, MLN4924 considerably inhibited the growth of chondrosarcoma tumors in a xenograft mouse model. Finally, MLN4924-mediated antichondrosarcoma properties can be accompanied by the stimulation of ER stress–related apoptosis, implying that targeting neddylation by MLN4924 is a novel therapeutic strategy for treating chondrosarcoma.
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