This study develops a novel approach for modelling and examining the impacts of time-space land-use changes on hydrological components. The approach uses an empirical land-use change allocation model (CLUE-s) and a distributed hydrological model (DHSVM) to examine various land-use change scenarios in the Wu-Tu watershed in northern Taiwan. The study also uses a generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation approach to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the distributed hydrological model. The results indicate that various land-use policies-such as no change, dynamic change and simultaneous change-have different levels of impact on simulating the spatial distributions of hydrological components in the watershed study. Peak flow rates under simultaneous and dynamic land-use changes are 5.71% and 2.77%, respectively, greater than the rate under the no land-use change scenario. Using dynamic land-use changes to assess the effect of land-use changes on hydrological components is more practical and feasible than using simultaneous land-use change and no land-use change scenarios. Furthermore, land-use change is a spatial dynamic process that can lead to significant changes in the distributions of ground water and soil moisture. The spatial distributions of land-use changes influence hydrological processes, such as the ground water level of whole areas, particularly in the downstream watershed.
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