Silver nanoparticles pose a potential risk to ecosystems and living organisms due to their widespread use in various fields and subsequent gradual release into the environment. Only a few studies have investigated the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) toxicity on immunological functions. Furthermore, these toxic effects have not been fully explored. Recent studies have indicated that zebrafish are considered a good alternative model for testing toxicity and for evaluating immunological toxicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity effects of AgNPs on innate immunity using a zebrafish model and to investigate whether the natural com-pound pterostilbene (PTE) could provide protection against AgNPs‐induced immunotoxicity. Wild type and neutrophil‐ and macrophage‐transgenic zebrafish lines were used in the experiments. The results indicated that the exposure to AgNPs induced toxic effects including death, malformation and the innate immune toxicity of zebrafish. In addition, AgNPs affect the number and function of neutrophils and macrophages. The expression of immune‐related cytokines and chemokines was also affected. Notably, the addition of PTE could activate immune cells and promote their accumu-lation in injured areas in zebrafish, thereby reducing the damage caused by AgNPs. In conclusion, AgNPs may induce innate immune toxicity and PTE could ameliorate this toxicity.
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