Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an excessive immune reaction to a pre-existing infection following the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Molluscum contagiosum-associated IRIS is rare. We report a new case and review the five other reported cases. Our patient, a 40-year-old Taiwanese male with HIV infection, presented with inflamed papules and pustules over the neck and arms occurring 1 month into HAART with recovering of CD4 cell counts. Histopathology showed molluscum contagiosum with a dense diffuse mixed inflammatory infiltrate with abundant eosinophils. The skin lesions resolved spontaneously within 3 months under continuous HAART.
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