Background: The extra-intestinal effects of probiotics for preventing allergic diseases are well known. However, the probiotic components that interact with host target molecules and have a beneficial effect on allergic asthma remain unknown. Lactobacillus gasseri attenuates allergic airway inflammation through the activation of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in dendritic cells. Therefore, we aimed to isolate and investigate the immunomodulatory effect of the PPARγ activation component from L. gasseri. Methods: Culture supernatants of L. gasseri were fractionated and screened for the active component for allergic asthma. The isolated component was subjected to in vitro functional assays and then cloned. The crystal structure of this component protein was determined using X-ray crystallography. Intrarectal inoculation of the active component-overexpressing Clear coli (lipopolysaccharide-free Escherichia coli) and intraperitoneal injection of recombinant component protein were used in a house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma mouse model to investigate the protective effect. Recombinant mutant component proteins were assayed, and their structures were superimposed to identify the detailed mechanism of alleviating allergic inflammation. Results: A moonlighting protein, glycolytic glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), LGp40, that has multifunctional effects was purified from cultured L. gasseri, and the crystal structure was determined. Both intrarectal inoculation of LGp40-overexpressing Clear coli and intraperitoneal administration of recombinant LGp40 protein attenuated allergic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. However, CDp40, GAPDH isolated from Clostridium difficile did not possess this anti-asthma effect. LGp40 redirected allergic M2 macrophages toward the M1 phenotype and impeded M2-prompted Th2 cell activation through glycolytic activity that induced immunometabolic changes. Recombinant mutant LGp40, without enzyme activity, showed no protective effect against HDM-induced airway inflammation. Conclusions: We found a novel mechanism of moonlighting LGp40 in the reversal of M2-prompted Th2 cell activation through glycolytic activity, which has an important immunoregulatory role in preventing allergic asthma. Our results provide a new strategy for probiotics application in alleviating allergic asthma.
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