Purpose: Emerging data have indicated that nephrolithiasis is possibly associated with subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD). Considering that a significant proportion of obstructive CAD in non-elderly individuals occurs in those without detectable calcium score (CACS), this study aimed to investigate whether nephrolithiasis is still associated with CAD as assessed by coronary computed tomography (CT)-derived luminal stenosis [using Gensini score (GS)]. Methods: A total of 1170 asymptomatic adults without known CAD who underwent health examinations were recruited. Nephrolithiasis was assessed using abdominal ultrasonography (US). Individuals with a self-reported stone history, but no evidence of nephrolithiasis were excluded. The CACS and GS were measured using 256-slice coronary CT. Results: Nearly half of these patients had a CACS > 0 (48.1%), and a higher prevalence of nephrolithiasis was observed than in those who had zero CACS (13.1% vs. 9.7%). However, no significant intergroup difference in GS was detected. A greater proportion of stone formers than non-stone formers had a higher risk category, whereas no significant difference was noted in Gensini category. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the CACS independently predicted the presence of nephrolithiasis after adjustment. Importantly, we found that stone formers had a nearly threefold higher risk than non-stone formers of developing severe coronary calcification (CAC > 400). Conclusions: Nephrolithiasis was significantly associated with coronary artery calcification presence and severity, but not coronary luminal stenosis in patients without known CAD. Accordingly, the relationship between stone disease and CAD remains controversial, and additional studies are imperative to validate these findings.
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