Purpose: Vitamin D3 is useful for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritoneal damage, but its side effects, such as hypercalcemia and vascular calcification, limit its applicability. Thus, we developed vitamin D-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and determined their therapeutic efficacy and side effects in vivo. Materials and Methods: Alginate-modified MNPs were combined with 1α, 25 (OH)2D3 to generate vitamin D-loaded nanoparticles. The particles were conjugated with an antibody against peritoneum-glycoprotein M6A (GPM6A). The particles’ ability to target the peritoneum was examined following intraperitoneal administration to mice and by monitoring their bio-distribution. We also established a PD animal model to determine the therapeutic and side effects of vitamin D-loaded MNPs in vivo. Results: Vitamin D-loaded MNPs targeted the peritoneum better than vitamin D3, and had the same therapeutic effect as vitamin D3 in ameliorating peritoneal fibrosis and functional deterioration in a PD animal model. Most importantly, the particles reduced the side effects of vitamin D3, such as hypercalcemia and body weight loss, in mice. Conclusion: Vitamin D-loaded MNPs could be an ideal future therapeutic option to treat PD-related peritoneal damage.
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